No one was home when the FBI began visiting the Mayfield residence in Aloha, Oregon, a suburb of Portland, early in the spring of 2004. The agents did, however, see plenty of Brandon Mayfield, a Portland lawyer, his Egyptian-born wife, Mona, and their three children. According to court records, the agents had been following the Muslim family to and from their mosque, at the children’s schools, and at various family activities. They obtained from the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Court what is commonly called a “sneak and peek” warrant that permits the search of property without notifying the suspect party until six months later. Investigators planted electronic listening devices in the “shared and intimate” rooms of the Mayfield home and in Mayfield’s law offices. They photographed files and downloaded hard drives. They placed wiretaps on both home and office phones. The application for the FISC order was personally approved by John Ashcroft, then the Attorney General of the United States. Why was our government so interested Mayfield’s files, activities, and conversations? A U.S. citizen born in Kansas, Mayfield is a convert to the Muslim faith. He was aware that the FBI had been investigating Muslims in the Portland area, particularly a group that became known as “The Portland Six,” whose members were convicted on money-laundering and weapons charges related to their efforts in support of the Taliban fighting U.S. and allied forces in Afghanistan. One of them, Jeffrey Battles, had retained Mayfield as his lawyer in a child custody case.